Ibuprofen (INN) (/ˈaɪbjuːproʊfɛn/ or /aɪbjuːˈproʊfən/ eye-bew-proh-fən; from isobutylphenylpropanoic acid) is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) used for relieving pain, helping with fever, and reducing inflammation.
Ibuprofen has an antiplatelet effect, though it is relatively mild and somewhat short-lived compared with aspirin or prescription antiplatelet drugs. In general, ibuprofen also has a vasodilation effect.Ibuprofen was derived from propanoic acid by the research arm of Boots Company during the 1960s and patented in 1961.Originally marketed as Brufen, ibuprofen is available under a variety of trade names around the world.
It is on the World Health Organization’s List of Essential Medicines, a list of the most important medication needed in a basic health system.
Ibuprofen is used primarily for fever, pain, painful periods and inflammatory diseases such as osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. It is also used for pericarditis and patent ductus arteriosus.
In Europe, Australia, and New Zealand, ibuprofen lysine (the lysine salt of ibuprofen, sometimes called “ibuprofen lysinate” even though the lysine is in cationic form) is licensed for treatment of the same conditions as ibuprofen. The lysine salt increases water solubility, allowing intravenous use, and is indicated for closure of a patent ductus arteriosus in premature infants weighing between 500 and 1,500 grams (1 and 3 lb), who are no more than 32 weeks gestational age when usual medical management (e.g., fluid restriction, diuretics, respiratory support, etc.) is ineffective.
With regard to this indication, ibuprofen lysine is an effective alternative to intravenous indomethacin, and may be advantageous in terms of kidney function.Ibuprofen lysine has been shown to have a more rapid onset of action compared to acid ibuprofen.In UK Ibuprofen Lysine is marketed as express pain relief, tension headache relief and more commonly migraine relief medicine. Usually available in packing of 16 342 mg tablets the pack is marketed over-the-counter (OTC) by most superstores and pharmacies as their own branded product including, but not limited to, Asda, Tesco and Superdrug.
Common adverse effects include: nausea, dyspepsia, gastrointestinal ulceration/bleeding, raised liver enzymes, diarrhea, constipation, nosebleed, headache, dizziness, rash, salt and fluid retention, and hypertension. A study from 2010 has shown regular use of NSAIDs was associated with an increase in hearing loss.
Infrequent adverse effects include: esophageal ulceration, heart failure, hyperkalemia, renal impairment, confusion, and bronchospasm. Ibuprofen can exacerbate asthma, sometimes fatally.Ibuprofen may be quantitated in blood, plasma, or serum to demonstrate the presence of the drug in a person having experienced an anaphylactic reaction, confirm a diagnosis of poisoning in hospitalized patients, or assist in a medicolegal death investigation. A nomogram relating ibuprofen plasma concentration, time since ingestion, and risk of developing renal toxicity in overdose patients has been published.